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Considered by many to be the pinnacle of all conspiracy theories, the flat earth cover up is perhaps the most important conspiracy to understand of them all. The theory posits that the earth is flat, planar, and level and the idea of a planetary globe is part of a larger conspiracy which promotes scarcity and scientific manipulation. Globe earth is pushed by virtually every government in the world, space agencies, telecommunications companies, and several other large organizations and it is believed that Freemasons and Illuminati members in high places keep the lies ongoing. Flat Earth is a highly scientific theory and also means that gravity is a conspiracy, the sun and moon are small and nearby, the atmosphere is enclosed by a dome, and virtually all "space travel" is a hoax.
Since ancient times, virtually all civilizations observed the place where we all live to be flat. It was never put into question that perhaps our realm was curved or had any other generalized contour. Across multiple millennia, religious and spiritual teachings bonded to this fact and it became engrained in the human experience. It was not until more modern times that early Freemaasons began their dark work of conditioning civilians to believe that the earth is round. Is it in this epoch of "scientific enlightenment" that Isaac Newton, a well known Freemason began to push his theory of gravity around the academic circuit.
The Bedford Canal Experiments
The classic Flat Earth water convexity experiments were described in the book Earth Not a Globe by Samuel Birley Rowbotham. Rowbotham lives near the canal and performs the experiment numerous times over a long period of time. The Bedford Canal is a man-made canal which was selected as the most ideal location for the types of experiments performed due to the narrow passageways and low disturbance of the water's surface.
Of special interest, and in regards to the popularized subject of refraction, we look at the second experiment in the text.
From Experiment Two of Earth Not a Globe we read:
Along the edge of the water, in the same canal, six flags were placed, one statute mile from each other, and so arranged that the top of each flag was 5 feet above the surface. Close to the last flag in the series a longer staff was fixed, bearing a flag 3 feet square, and the top of which was 8 feet above the surface of the water--the bottom being in a line with the tops of the other and intervening flags, as shown in the following diagram, Fig, 4.
On looking with a good telescope over and along the flags, from A to B, the line of sight fell on the lower part of the larger flag at B. The altitude of the point B above the water at D was 5 feet, and the altitude of the telescope at A above the water at C was 5 feet; and each intervening flag had the same altitude. Hence the surface of the water C, D, was equidistant from the line of sight A, B; and as A B was a right line, C, D, being parallel, was also a right line; or, in other words, the surface of the water, C, D, was for six miles absolutely horizontal.
C to D, each flag would have been a given amount below the line A, B. The first and second flags would have determined the direction of the line of sight from A to B, and the third flag would have been 8 inches below the second; the fourth flag, 32 inches; the fifth, 6 feet; the sixth, 10 feet 8 inches; and the seventh, 16 feet 8 inches; but the top of the last and largest flag, being 3 feet higher than the smaller ones, would have been 13 feet 8 inches below the line of sight at the point B.
On analysis of this experiment, if the earth were a globe, one important remark would be that it is quite the coincidence that the flags all experienced the Flat Earth refraction effect, one by one, all the way down to the end, which projected each flag into the air at the exact height they needed to be at in order to make things look flat in accordance with the distance looked across and the height of the observer.
There are multiple control points in this experiment and others. Each point is a test in the experiment. Incredible refraction coincidences would need to occur to account for them. The top of the first flag would have to have been projected 8 inches into the air, the second flag 2.67 feet, the third flag 6 feet, the fourth flag 10.6 feet, the fifth flag 14.29 feet, and the sixth flag 24.01 feet into the air, when the later flags should be below the horizon. Rowbotham is well aware of the "it was refraction" argument, and his experiment is designed to test the refraction of light rays on the flags of constant height against the taller flag at the end. The observation is artificially manipulated—controlled—to separate one explanation from another, in the effort to more truthfully determine a cause of an observation.
Other ENAG Experiments
Boat Unsunken, 6 miles (Two Point) Theodolite Between Bridges (Three Point) Theodolite-Flag-Cross (Three Point) Bridge Notice Board (Two Point) Receding Boat (Duration type, Multiple Point) Horizontal Curvature - Long Board Horizontal Curvature - Crosshair Boat Between Lighthouses (Three Point)
The English Mechanic
From The English Mechanic, we read about a repeat of Rowbotham's water convexity experiment on the Bedford Canal:
From "The Flat Earth: another Bedford Canal experiment" (Bernard H.Watson, et al), ENGLISH MECHANIC, 80:160, 1904
Weather and Wave Conditions
In the chapter On the Dimensions of Ocean Waves, Rowbotham explains that the above is affected by wind and water conditions. The reproduction woks best in fine weather:
The Bishop Experiment
California Monterey Bay is a relatively long bay that sits next to the Pacific Ocean. The distance between the extremes of the Monterey Bay, Lovers Point in Pacific Grove and Lighthouse State Beach in Santa Cruz, is just over 23 statute miles.
On a very clear and chilly day it is possible to see Lighthouse Beach from Lovers Point and vice versa. With a good telescope, laying down on the stomach at the edge of the shore near Lovers Point 20 inches above the sea level it is possible to see people at the waters edge on the adjacent beach 23 miles away near the lighthouse. The entire beach is visible down to the water splashing upon the shore. Upon looking into the telescope I can see children running in and out of the water, splashing and playing. I can see people sun bathing at the shore and teenagers merrily throwing Frisbees to one another. I can see runners jogging along the water's edge with their dogs. From my vantage point the entire beach is visible.
IF the earth is a globe, and is 24,900 English statute miles in circumference, the surface of all standing water must have a certain degree of convexity--every part must be an arc of a circle. From the summit of any such arc there will exist a curvature or declination of 8 inches over the first statute mile. Over two miles the fall will be 32 inches; by the end of the third mile, 72 inches, or 6 feet, as shown in this chart.
Correcting for the height of the observer of about 20 inches, when looking at the opposite beach over 23 miles away there should be a bulge of water obscuring objects up to 300 feet above the far beach. There isn't. Even accounting for refraction, the amount hidden should be around 260 feet - seeing down to the shoreline should be impossible.
Suppose that the earth is a sphere with a radius of 3,963 miles. If you are at a point P on the earth's surface and move tangent to the surface a distance of 1 mile then you can form a right angled triangle as in the diagram.
Looking over a distance of 1 mile, we can use the theorem of Pythagoras:
a2 = 3,9632 + 12 = 15,705,370
and when we square root that figure we get a = 3,963.000126 miles
Thus your position is 3,963.000126 - 3,963 = 0.000126 miles above the surface of the earth.
0.000126 miles = 12 in * 5,280 ft * 0.000126 mi = 7.98 inches
Hence after one mile the earth drops approximately 8 inches.
Ergo, looking across 23 miles the Pythagorean theorem becomes:
a2 = 39632 +232 = 15,705,898
and when we square root that figure we get a = 3,963.06674 miles
Thus your position is 3,963.06674 - 3,963 = 0.06674 miles above the surface of the earth
0.06674 miles = 5,280 ft/mi * 0.6674 mi = 352.3872 feet
Hence after 23 miles the earth drops approximately 352 feet.
There are a number of different methods to calculate the drop of the Round Earth. Go ahead and look a few up to try out. You will find that the drop while looking over 23 miles is on the order of 300-400 feet.
Sinking Ship Effect
The Sinking Ship Effect is often used as evidence of the earth's rotundity. It was one of the first proofs of Aristotle and other philosophers. It was based primarily upon this phenomenon that the earth was declared by the ancients to be globular. It has been found that when the phenomenon is studied with modern methods, such as through long period time-lapse photography, that the Sinking Ship Effect is not consistent. The effect appears to come and go over time.